Terminal ballistics also known as wound ballisticsa sub-field of ballisticsis the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.
Bullet design and the velocity of impact largely determine the effectiveness of its impact. While the concepts of terminal ballistics can be applied to any projectile striking any target, much of the topic concerns the effects of small arms fire Ballistic penetration data live targets, and their ability to either incapacitate or kill them.
Common factors include bullet weight, composition, velocity, and shape. For short range target shooting on ranges up to 50 meters 55 ydaerodynamics are relatively unimportant and velocities are low.
As long as the bullet is balanced so it does not tumble, the aerodynamics Ballistic penetration data unimportant. For shooting at paper targets, the best bullet is one that will punch a perfect hole through the target. These bullets are called wadcutters. They have a very flat front, often with a relatively sharp edge along the perimeter. The flat front punches out a large hole in the paper, close to, if not equal to, the full diameter of the bullet.
This allows for easy, unambiguous scoring of the target.
Since cutting the edge of a target ring will result in scoring the higher score, fractions of an inch are important. Magazine -fed pistols may not reliably feed wadcutters because of the angular shape.
To address this, the semiwadcutter is used.
The semiwadcutter consists of a conical section that comes to a smaller flat, and a thin sharp shoulder at the base of the cone. The flat point punches a clean hole, and the shoulder opens the hole up cleanly. For steel targets, the concern is to provide enough force to knock over the target while minimizing the damage to the target. A soft lead bullet, or a jacketed hollow-point bullet or soft-point bullet will flatten out on impact if the velocity at impact is sufficient to make it deformspreading the impact over a larger area of the target, allowing more total force to be applied without damaging the steel target.
There are also specialized bullets designed for use in long range precision target shooting with high-powered rifles; the designs vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer. Research in the s by the U. Air Force discovered that bullets are more stable in flight for longer distances and more resistant to crosswinds if the center of gravity Ballistic penetration data somewhat to the rear of the center of pressure The MatchKing bullet which is still in wide use and holds many records is a hollow point design with a tiny aperture in the jacket at the Ballistic penetration data of the bullet and a Ballistic penetration data air space under the point of the bullet, where previous conventional bullets had a lead core that went all the way up to the point.
Marine snipers who use accurized Mtype rifles are issued the Mk Mod 0 cartridge developed jointly by Black Hills Ammunition and Crane Naval Surface Warfare Centerusing a bullet manufactured by Sierra Bullets that was cannelured according to military specifications for this project.
For ultra long range precision target Ballistic penetration data with high-powered rifles and military sniping, radically designed very-low-drag VLD bullets are available that are generally produced out of rods of mono-metal alloys on CNC lathes.
The driving force behind these projectiles is the wish to enhance the practical maximum effective range beyond normal standards. To achieve this, the bullets have to be very long and normal cartridge overall lengths often have to be exceeded.
Common rifling twist rates also often have to be tightened to stabilize very long projectiles. Such commercially nonexistent cartridges are termed "wildcats".
The use of a wildcat based ultra long-range cartridge demands the use Ballistic penetration data a custom or customized rifle Ballistic penetration data an appropriately cut chamber and a fast-twist bore.
For use against armored targets, or large, tough game animals, penetration is the most important consideration. Focusing the largest amount of momentum on the smallest possible area of the target provides the greatest penetration. Bullets for maximum penetration are designed to resist deformation on impact, and usually are made of lead that is covered in a copper, brass, or mild steel jacket some are even solid copper or bronze alloy. The jacket completely covers the front of the bullet, although often the rear is left with exposed lead this is a manufacturing consideration: For penetrating substances significantly harder than jacketed lead, the lead core is supplemented with or replaced with a harder material, such as hardened steel.
Military armor-piercing small arms ammunition is made from a copper-jacketed steel core; the steel resists deformation better than the usual soft lead core leading to greater penetration.
The current NATO 5. For larger, higher-velocity calibers, such as tank guns, hardness is of secondary importance to density, and are normally sub-caliber Ballistic penetration data made from tungsten carbidetungsten hard alloy or depleted uranium fired in a light aluminum or magnesium alloy or carbon fibre in some cases sabot. Ballistic penetration data modern tank guns are smoothbore, not rifled, because practical rifling twists can only stabilize projectiles, such as an Armour-Piercing Capped Ballistic Cap APCBCwith a length-to-diameter ratio of up to about 5: To get the maximum force on the smallest area, modern anti-tank rounds have aspect ratios of Since these cannot be stabilized by rifling, they are built instead like large darts, with fins providing the stabilizing force instead of rifling.
The sabot is a light material that transfers the pressure of the charge to the penetrator, then is discarded when the round leaves the barrel. The final category of bullets is that intended to control penetration Ballistic penetration data as not to harm anything behind the Ballistic penetration data. Such bullets are used primarily for hunting and civilian antipersonnel use; they are not generally used by the military, since the use of expanding bullets in international conflicts is prohibited by the Hague Convention and because these bullets have less chance of penetrating modern body armor.
These bullets are designed to increase their surface area on impact, thus creating greater drag and limiting the travel through the target. A desirable side effect is that the expanded bullet makes a larger hole, increasing tissue disruption and speeding incapacitation. While a bullet that penetrates through-and-through tends to cause more profuse bleeding, allowing a game animal to be bloodtrailed more easily, in some applications, preventing exit from the rear of the target is more desirable.
A perforating bullet can continue on likely not coaxial to the original trajectory due to target deflection and might cause unintended damage or injury.
Frangible bullets, made of tiny fragments held together by a weak binding, are often sold as an "ultimate" expanding bullet, as they will increase their effective diameter by an order of magnitude.
When they work, they work extremely well, causing massive trauma to the target. On the other hand, when they fail, it is due to underpenetration, and the damage to the target is superficial and leads Ballistic penetration data very slow incapacitation. The simplest maximum disruption bullet is one with a wide, flat tip.
It also increases drag during flight, which decreases the depth to which the bullet penetrates. Older centerfire rifles with tube magazines were designed to be used with flat-point bullets. They are often made of unusually hard alloys, are longer and heavier than normal for their caliber, and even include exotic materials such as tungsten to increase their sectional density. These bullets are designed to penetrate deeply through muscle and bone, while causing a wound channel of nearly the full diameter of the bullet.
These bullets are designed to penetrate deeply enough to reach vital organs from any shooting angle and at a far enough range. One of the hunting applications of the flat point bullet is large game such as bear hunted with a handgun in a. More common than hunting Ballistic penetration data its use in a defensive "bear gun" carried by outdoorsmen. The disadvantage of flat point bullets is the reduction in aerodynamic performance; the flat point induces Ballistic penetration data dragleading to significantly reduced velocities at long range.
More effective on lighter targets are the expanding bullets, the hollow point bullet and the soft point bullet. These are designed to use the hydraulic pressure of muscle tissue to expand the bullet.
The hollow point peels back into eight or nine connected pieces causing it to expand the damaged area. The hollow point fills with body water on impact, then expands as the bullet continues to have water pushed into it.
This process is Ballistic penetration data mushrooming, as the ideal result is a shape that resembles a mushroom —a cylindrical base, topped with a wide surface where the tip of the bullet has peeled back to expose more area to create more drag while traveling through a body. A copper-plated hollowpoint loaded in a. Penetration of the hollowpoint would be less than half that of a similar nonexpanding bullet, and the resulting wound or permanent cavity would be much wider.
This class of projectile is designed to break apart on impact, causing an effect similar to that of a frangible projectile, whilst being of a construction more akin to that of an expanding bullet.
Fragmenting bullets are usually constructed like the hollowpoint projectiles described above, but with deeper and larger Ballistic penetration data.
They may also have thinner copper jackets in order to reduce their overall integrity. For the purposes of aerodynamic efficiency the tip of the hollowpoint will often be tipped with a pointed polymer 'nose'.
These bullets are typically fired at high velocities to maximize their fragmentation upon impact. In contrast to a hollowpoint which attempts to stay in one large piece retaining as much weight as possible whilst presenting the most surface area to the target, a fragmenting bullet is intended to break up into many small pieces almost instantly.
This means that all the kinetic energy from the bullet is transferred into the target in a very short period of time. The most common application of this bullet is the shooting of small vermin, such Ballistic penetration data prairie dogs. The effect of these Ballistic penetration data is quite dramatic, often resulting in the animal being blown apart upon impact.
However, on larger game fragmenting ammunition provides inadequate penetration of vital organs to ensure a clean kill; instead, a "splash wound" may result.
This also Ballistic penetration data practical use of these rounds to supersonic rifle rounds, which have a high enough kinetic energy to ensure a lethal hit. The two main advantages of this ammunition are that it is very humane, as a hit almost anywhere on most small vermin will ensure an instant kill, and that instead of dangerously and uncontrollably ricocheting off surfaces, the bullet harmlessly breaks apart.
Fragmenting bullets should not be confused with frangible bullets see below.
Legitimate ballistic penetration data xxx pics
The last category of expanding bullets is frangible bullets. These bullets are designed to break up on impact, which results in a huge increase in surface area. The most common of these bullets are made of small diameter lead pellets, placed in a thin copper shell and held in place by an epoxy or similar binding agent.
On impact, the Ballistic penetration data shatters and the copper shell opens up, much like a hollowpoint.
The individual lead balls then spread out in a wide pattern, and due to their low mass to surface area ratio, stop very quickly. Similar bullets are made out of sintered metals, which turn to powder upon impact. These bullets are usually restricted to pistol cartridges, as the nonhomogenous cores tend to cause inaccuracies that, while acceptable at short pistol ranges, are not acceptable for the typical range at which rifles are used.
One interesting use of the sintered metal rounds is in shotguns in hostage rescue situations; the sintered metal round is used at near-contact range to shoot the lock mechanism out of doors. The resulting metal Ballistic penetration data will immediately disperse after knocking out the door lock, and cause little or no damage to occupants of the room.
Frangible rounds are also used by armed security agents on Ballistic penetration data.
The concern is not depressurization a bullet hole will not depressurise an airlinerbut over penetration and damage to vital electrical or hydraulic lines, or injury to an innocent bystander by a bullet that travels through a target's body completely instead of stopping in the body. The Warsaw Pact 5.