The Sumatran rhinocerosalso known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensisis a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the only extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. A coat of reddish-brown hair covers most of the Sumatran rhino's body. In historical times, they lived in southwest China, particularly in Sichuan. Their numbers are difficult to determine because they are solitary animals that are widely scattered across Hot hairy asian range, but they are estimated to Hot hairy asian fewer than Inresearchers announced that the Bornean rhinoceros had become extinct from the northern part of Borneo SabahMalaysia ;  however, a tiny population was discovered in East Kalimantan in early The Sumatran rhino is a mostly solitary animal except for courtship and offspring-rearing.
It is the most vocal rhino species and also communicates through marking soil with its feet, twisting saplings into patterns, and leaving excrement. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Hot hairy asian rhinocerosin part because of a program that brought 40 Sumatran rhinos into captivity with the goal of preserving the species. There was little or no information about procedures that would assist in ex situ breeding.
Though a number of rhinos died once at the various destinations and no offspring were produced for nearly 20 years, the rhinos were all doomed in their soon to be logged forest. Drawings of the animal, and a written description, were sent to the naturalist Hot hairy asian Banksthen president of the Royal Society of Londonwho published a paper on the specimen that year.
Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger proposed the name Dicerorhinus in InJohn Edward Gray proposed the name Ceratorhinus. Normally, the oldest name would be used, but a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature established the proper genus name as Dicerorhinus.
A slight genetic difference is noted between the Western Sumatran and Bornean rhinos. Unconfirmed reports suggest a small population may still survive in Myanmar, but the political situation in that country has prevented verification. Later studies showed that their ear-hair was not longer than other Sumatran rhinos, but D. Ancestral rhinoceroses first diverged from other perissodactyls in the Early Eocene. Mitochondrial DNA comparison suggests the ancestors of modern rhinos split from the ancestors of Equidae around 50 million years ago.
The Sumatran rhinoceros is considered the least derived of the extant species, as it shares more traits with its Miocene ancestors. Many fossils have been classified as Hot hairy asian of Dicerorhinusbut no other recent species are in the genus. Three hypotheses have been proposed Hot hairy asian the relationship between the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Hot hairy asian living species. One hypothesis suggests the Sumatran rhinoceros is closely related to the black and white rhinos in Africa, evidenced by the species having two horns, instead of one.
Because of morphological similarities, the Sumatran rhinoceros is believed to be closely related to the extinct woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis. The woolly rhinoceros, so named for the coat of hair it shares with the Sumatran rhinoceros, first appeared in China; by the Upper Pleistoceneit ranged across the Eurasian continent from Korea to Spain.
The woolly rhinoceros survived the last Ice Agebut, like the woolly mammothmost or all became extinct around 10, years ago. Although some morphological studies questioned the relationship,  recent molecular analysis has supported the two species as sister taxa. The larger nasal horn is also known as the anterior horn; the smaller posterior horn is known as the frontal horn.
The males have larger horns than the females, though the species is not otherwise sexually dimorphic. The Sumatran rhino lives an estimated 30—45 years in the wild, while the record time in captivity is a female D.
Two thick folds of skin encircle the body Hot hairy asian the front legs and before the hind legs. The rhino has a smaller fold of skin around its neck. Hair can range from dense the most dense hair in young calves to scarce, and is usually a reddish brown.
In the wild, this hair is hard to observe because the rhinos are often covered in mud. In captivity, however, the hair grows out and becomes much shaggier, likely because of less abrasion from walking through vegetation. The rhino Hot hairy asian a patch of long hair around its ears and a thick clump of hair at the end of its tail.
Like all rhinos, they have very poor vision. The Sumatran rhinoceros Hot hairy asian fast and agile; it climbs mountains easily and comfortably traverses steep slopes and riverbanks. The Sumatran rhinoceros lives in both lowland and highland secondary rainforestswamps, and cloud forests.
It inhabits hilly areas close to water, particularly steep upper valleys with copious undergrowth. The Sumatran rhinoceros once inhabited a continuous range as far north as Burmaeastern Indiaand Bangladesh. Unconfirmed reports also placed it in CambodiaLaosand Vietnam. Some conservationists hope Sumatran rhinos may still survive in Burma, though it is considered unlikely. Political turmoil in Burma has prevented any assessment or study of possible survivors.
The Sumatran rhino is widely scattered across its range, much more so than the other Asian rhinos, which has made it difficult for conservationists to protect members of the species effectively. The Kerinci Seblat National ParkSumatra's largest, was estimated to contain a population of around rhinos Hot hairy asian the s,  but due to poaching, this population is now considered extinct. The survival of any animals in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely unlikely.
Genetic analysis of Sumatran rhino populations has identified three distinct genetic lineages. In fact, the eastern Sumatra and Malaysia rhinos show so little Hot hairy asian variance, the populations were likely not separate during the Pleistocenewhen sea levels were much lower and Sumatra formed part of the mainland.
Both populations of Sumatra and Malaysia, however, are close enough genetically that interbreeding would not be problematic. The rhinos of Borneo are sufficiently distinct that conservation geneticists have advised against crossing their lineages with the other populations. The results of initial testing found levels of variability within Sumatran rhino populations comparable to those in the population of the less endangered African rhinos, but the genetic diversity of Sumatran rhinos is an area of continuing study.
Hot hairy asian the rhino had been thought to be extinct in Kalimantan since the s, in March World Wildlife Fund WWF announced that the team when monitoring orangutan activity found in West Kutai RegencyEast Kalimantanseveral fresh rhino foot trails, mud holes, traces of rhino-rubbed trees, traces of rhino horns on the walls of mud holes, and rhino bites on small branches.
The team also identified that rhinos ate more than 30 species of plants. Experts assume the videos show two different animals, but aren't quite certain.