Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and toward bisexual people as a social group or as individuals. It can take the form of denial that bisexuality is a genuine sexual orientation, or of negative stereotypes about people who are bisexual such as the beliefs that they are promiscuous or dishonest. People of any sexual orientation can experience or perpetuate biphobia. Biphobia is a portmanteau word patterned on the term homophobia. It derives from the Bisexual black white neo-classical prefix bi- meaning "two" from bisexual and the root -phobia from the Greek: Along with transphobia and homophobiait is one of a family of terms used to describe intolerance and discrimination against LGBT people.
The adjectival form biphobic describes things or qualities related to biphobia, and the less-common noun biphobe is a label for people thought to harbor biphobia.
Biphobia need not be a phobia as defined in clinical psychology i. Its meaning and use typically parallel those of xenophobia.
Biphobia can lead people to deny that bisexuality is "real", asserting that people who identify as bisexual are not genuinely bisexual, or that the phenomenon is far less common than they claim. One form of this denial is based on the heterosexist view that heterosexuality is the only true Bisexual black white natural sexual orientation. Thus anything that deviates from that is instead either a psychological pathology or an example of anti-social behavior.
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In these instances, homophobia and biphobia are largely the same. Another form of denial stems from binary views of sexuality: Throughout the s, modern research on sexuality was dominated by the idea that heterosexuality and homosexuality were the only legitimate orientations, dismissing bisexuality as "secondary homosexuality".
Some people accept the theoretical existence Bisexual black white bisexuality but define it narrowly, as Bisexual black white only the equal attraction towards both men and women. Others acknowledge the existence of bisexuality in women, but deny that men can be bisexual.
Some denial asserts that bisexual behavior or identity is merely a social trend — as exemplified by " bisexual chic " or gender bending — and Bisexual black white an intrinsic personality trait.
Situational homosexuality in sex-segregated environments is presented as an example of this behavior. Biphobia is common from the heterosexual community, but is frequently exhibited by gay and lesbian people as well, usually with the notion that bisexuals are able to escape oppression from heterosexuals by conforming to social expectations of opposite-gender sex and romance. This leaves some that identify Bisexual black white bisexual to be perceived as "not enough of either" or "not real.
Bisexual erasure also referred to Bisexual black white bisexual invisibility is a phenomenon that tends to omit, falsify, or re-explain evidence of bisexuality in historyacademiathe news mediaand other primary sources  sometimes to the point of denying that bisexuality exists.
One cause of biphobia in the gay male community is Bisexual black white there is an identity political tradition to assume that acceptance of male homosexuality is linked to the belief that men's sexuality is specialized.
This causes many members of the gay male community to assume that the very idea that men can be bisexual is homophobic to gay men. A number of bisexual men feel that such attitudes force them to keep their bisexuality in the closet and that it is even more oppressive than traditional heteronormativity. These men argue that the gay male community have something to learn about respect for the individual from the lesbian community, in which there is not a strong tradition to assume links between notions Bisexual black white the origins of sexual preferences and the acceptance thereof.
These views are also supported by some gay men who do not like anal sex sides, as opposed to both tops and bottoms and report that they feel bullied by other gay men's assumption that their dislike for anal sex is "homophobic" and want more respect for the individuality in which a gay man who does not hate himself may simply not like anal sex and instead prefer other sex acts such as mutual fellatio and mutual male masturbation.
Some forms of prejudice against bisexuals are claims that bisexuality is an attempt Bisexual black white persecuted homosexuals to adapt to heteronormative societies by adopting a bisexual identity. Such claims are criticized by bisexuals and researchers studying the situation of bisexuals for falsely assuming that same-sex relationships would somehow escape persecution in heteronormative cultures by simply identifying as bisexual instead of homosexual.
These researchers cite that all countries with laws against sex between people of the same sex give the same punishment regardless of what sexual orientation the people Bisexual black white guilty identify as, that any countries where same-sex marriage is illegal never allow marriages between people of the same sex no matter if they identify as bisexual instead of homosexual, and that laws against "gay" male blood donors invariably prohibit any man who had sex with other men from donating blood no matter if he identifies as homosexual or as bisexual.
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The conclusion made by these researchers is that since there is no societal benefit in identifying as bisexual instead of identifying as homosexual, the claim that bisexuals are homosexuals trying to adapt to a heteronormative society is simply false and biphobic and causes bisexuals to suffer a two-way discrimination from both LGBT society and heteronormative society that is worse than the one-way discrimination from heteronormative society that is faced by homosexuals.
It is also argue that such two-way discrimination causes many bisexuals Bisexual black white hide their bisexuality to an even greater extent than homosexuals hide their sexuality, leading to underestimations of the prevalence of bisexuality especially in men for whom such assumptions of "really being completely gay" are the most rampant.
Many stereotypes about people who identify as bisexual stem from denial Bisexual black white bisexual erasure. Because their orientation is not recognized as valid, they are stereotyped as confused, indecisive, insecure, experimenting, or "just going through a phase".
The association of bisexuality with promiscuity stems from a variety of negative stereotypes targeting bisexuals as mentally or socially unstable people for whom sexual relations Bisexual black white with men, only with women, or only with one person at a time is not enough. These stereotypes may result from cultural assumptions that "men and women are so different that desire for one is an entirely different beast from desire for the other" "a defining feature of heterosexism "and that "verbalizing a sexual desire inevitably leads to attempts to satisfy that desire.
This presumed behavior is further generalized as dishonesty, secrecy, and deception. Bisexual black white can be characterized as being "slutty", "easy", indiscriminate, and nymphomaniacs. Furthermore, they are strongly associated with polyamoryswingingand polygamy the last being an established heterosexual tradition sanctioned by some religions and legal in several countries. This is despite the fact that bisexual people are as capable of monogamy or serial monogamy as homosexuals or heterosexuals.
The mental and Bisexual black white health effects of biphobia on bisexual people are numerous. Studies show that bisexuals are often trapped in between the binaries of heterosexuality and homosexuality, creating a form of invalidation around their sexual identity. This often leads to recognized indicators of mental health issues such as low self-esteem and self-worth. These indicators and pressures to "choose" a sexual identity can, in many cases, lead to depression as they may feel they live in a culture that does not recognize their existence.
While doing research on women at high-risk of HIV infection, one study, from the Journal of Bisexuality, concluded that bisexual women in the high-risk cohort studied were more likely to engage in various high risk behaviors and were at a Bisexual black white risk of contracting HIV and Bisexual black white sexually transmitted diseases.
Bisexual-identified people may face disparities in harsher degrees than their gay and lesbian peers. Feminist positions on bisexuality range greatly, from acceptance of bisexuality as a feminist issue to rejection of bisexuality as reactionary and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism.
A number of women who were at one time involved in Bisexual black white activism have since come out as bisexual after realizing their attractions to men. A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict within feminism was the Northampton Pride March during the years between andwhere many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism.
Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feministthat bisexuality was a form of false consciousnessand that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate.
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Nevertheless, some lesbian feminists such as Julie Bindel are still critical of bisexuality. Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists. Lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffreys writes in The Lesbian Heresy that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men, they are uncomfortable interacting with bisexual men.
Jeffreys states that while Bisexual black white men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men.
Donna Haraway was the inspiration and genesis for cyberfeminism with her essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: The Reinvention of Nature Haraway's essay states that the cyborg "has no truck with bisexuality, pre-oedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or other seductions to organic wholeness through a final appropriation of all powers of the parts into a higher unity. Therefore, I [the author] would say that cyborgs can be bisexual, and cyberfeminism can and should be accepting of bisexuality.
While the general bisexual population as Bisexual black white whole faces biphobia, this oppression is also aggravated by other factors such as race. In his examination of the bisexual male perspective, Managing Heterosexism and Biphobia: Garner delves into the oppression that he faces as Bisexual black white a black and bisexual male. He explains that the internalization of negative sociocultural messages, reactions, and attitudes can be incredibly distressing as bisexual black males attempted to translate or transform these negative experiences into positive bisexual identity sustaining ones.
As the demands and tribulations of black Bisexual black white males appear to be comparatively more distressing than those that black and white, homo- and heterosexual individual's encounter, this acknowledgement is important and vital to the understanding of biphobia from an intersectional perspective.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Academic fields and discourse.
Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Ever Meet a Real Bisexual? Archived April 13,at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved March 26, Journal of Clinical Psychology. Retrieved September 22, The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity".
The erasure of bisexuals in academia and the media". National Sexuality Resource Center. Archived from the original on American Journal of Public Health. Department of Health and Human Services. The International Journal of Human Rights.
Walters, Jieru Chen, and Matthew J. Reasserting Radical Lesbian Feminism. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture.
Retrieved October 3, Spinifex Press Pty Ltf. Retrieved October 4, Bisexuality in the United States: A Social Science Reader. Links to related articles. Bisexual Bicurious Monosexual Pansexual Polysexual. History of bisexuality Bisexuality in the United States Media portrayals of bisexuality. Biphobia Bisexual Bisexual black white Bisexual erasure Lesbian until graduation. Self-identified bisexual persons List of bisexuality-related organizations and conferences List of media portrayals of bisexuality.
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