Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating counter-clockwise around a track. Roller derby is played by approximately 1, amateur leagues worldwide, mostly inside the United States. Game play consists of a series of short match-ups jams in which both teams designate a jammer who wears a star on the helmet. The jammer scores points by lapping members of the opposing team.
The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer—in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously. While the sport has its origins in the banked-track roller-skating marathons of the s, Leo Seltzer and Damon Runyon are credited with evolving the sport to its competitive form.
Professional roller derby quickly became popular; inmore than 5 million Kin 01 02 03 window roller watched in about 50 American cities. In the ensuing decades, however, it predominantly became a form of sports entertainmentwhere theatrical elements overshadowed athleticism.
Gratuitous showmanship largely ended with the sport's grassroots revival in the first decade of the 21st century. Modern roller derby is an international sport, mostly played by amateurs. Most teams are all-female teams, but there is a growing number of male, unisex, and junior roller derby teams.
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It was under consideration as a roller sport for the Summer Olympics. Most modern leagues and their back-office volunteers share a strong "do-it-yourself" ethic  that combines athleticism with the styles of punk and camp.
Contemporary roller derby has a basic set of rules, with variations reflecting the interests of a governing body 's member leagues. Roller derby is played in two periods of 30 minutes.
During each jam, players skate counterclockwise on a circuit track.
Points are scored only by a team's jammer. After breaking through the pack and skating one lap to begin another "trip" through the pack, the jammer scores one point for passing any member of the opposing team. The jammer's first earned pass scores a point for passing that opponent and a point for each opponent not on the track for instance, serving a penalty, or when the opposition did not field five players for the jam.
If the jammer passes the entire pack and the opposing jammer too, it is a five-point scoring trip, commonly called a "grand slam.
Each team's blockers use body contact, changing positions, and other tactics to help their jammer score while hindering the opposing team's jammer.
Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the "jammer line" and the "pivot line" 30 feet in front. The jammers start behind the jammer line. The pack is the largest single group of blockers containing members of both teams skating in proximity, arranged such that each player is within 10 feet of the next.
The first jammer to break through the pack earns the status of "lead jammer.
Once earned, lead jammer status cannot be transferred to other skaters, but certain actions notably, being sent to the penalty box can cause it to be lost. If the jam is not stopped early, it ends after two minutes. A skater may block an opponent to impede their movement or to force them out Kin 01 02 03 window roller bounds.
The blocker must be upright, skating counterclockwise, in bounds, and within the engagement zone. Blocking with hands, elbows, head, and feet is prohibited, as is contact above the shoulders or below mid-thigh, and blocking from behind. Referees penalize rules violations.
However, the "power jam", derived from hockey's "power play"does not cover any short-handed situation but only the case where the jammer is penalized.
While the lead jammer is penalized, no one can prematurely end the jam. It would be pointless to play if neither team could score; thus, a jammer is released from the penalty box early if the opponents' jammer enters the box. The second jammer's penalty is then only as long as the amount of time the first jammer spent in the box.
Players skate on four-wheeled "quad" roller skates, : All current sets of roller derby rules explicitly forbid inline skates for players. USARS requires quad skates for all skaters.
Individual teams may mandate additional gear, such as padded knee length pants, similar to what aggressive skateboarders wear, and biologically specific gear such as a hard-case sports bra for female players and protective cups for males. Offense and defense are played simultaneously,  a volatile aspect that complicates strategy and tactics. For example, blockers may create a large hole for their jammer to pass through and score, but this same maneuver might also allow the opposing team's jammer to score.
Strategies high-level plans toward achieving the game's goal, which is to outscore the opposition include the following:. Tactics deliberate conceptual tasks in support of the strategy may include the following:. WFTDA bouts are officiated by three to seven skating referees : Referees skate on the inside of the track; in flat-track derby, some also skate on the outside of the track. They call penalties, award points, and ensure safe game play. Volunteer leagues adapt when fewer than the optimal number of officials are present.
The growing popularity of roller skating in the United States led to the formation of organized multi-day endurance races for cash prizes, as early as the mids. The endurance races began to transform into the contemporary form of the sport in the mids, when promoter Leo Seltzer [note 2] [note 3] created the Transcontinental Roller Derby, a month-long simulation of a road race between two-person teams of professional skaters.
On November 29,before television viewership was widespread, Roller Derby debuted on New York television. Jerry Seltzer Leo's sonthe Roller Derby "commissioner", hoped Kin 01 02 03 window roller use television to expand the live spectator base.
He adapted the sport for television by developing scripted story lines and rules designed to improve television appeal, but derby's popularity declined. It used a figure-8 track and rules adapted for Kin 01 02 03 window roller track.
T-Birds, who according to the storyline were seeking revenge on the Violators led by Skull for cheating in the Commissioner's Cup. It ran one season, because some of its syndicators went bankrupt. InTNN now Spike TV debuted RollerJamwhich used the classic rules and banked oval track, but allowed inline skates although some skaters wore traditional quad skates.
Jerry Seltzer was commissioner for this version. Roller derby began its modern revival in Austin, Texas in the early s as an all-female, woman-organized amateur sport. Many roller derby leagues are amateur, self-organized and all-female  and were formed in a do-it-yourself spirit by relatively new enthusiasts.
Each league typically features local teams in public bouts that are popular with a diverse fan base.
In Februarythe International Olympic Committee considered roller derby, among eight sports, for inclusion in the Olympic Games.
Inthe feature film Whip It was based on roller derby and introduced viewers to its rules and culture. The WFTDA encouraged leagues to coordinate with promotions during the film's release to increase awareness of the leagues. Most players in roller leagues skate under pseudonyms, also called " derby names " or "skater names. Referees use derby names as well,  often shown on the backs of their striped uniforms.
Some players claim their names represent alter egos that they adopt while skating. Whether a team should skate under real names or derby names is sometimes debated. Copying of derby names has attracted legal Kin 01 02 03 window roller sociological analysis as an example of indigenous development of property rights.
Roller derby is a contact sport, and injuries can occur. Superficial injuries include torn eyelashes and "fishnet burn", a stippled effect of falling while wearing fishnet hose.
Some leagues prominently display their injuries, to embellish the image of violence or machismo. The WFTDA offers insurance for leagues in the United States with legal liability and accident coverage, but it recommends that skaters also carry their own primary medical insurance.
Roller derby bouts are now streamed online, and there is archived video of past bouts and tournaments. Derby News Network www. FiveOnFive magazine covers roller derby and diverse aspects such as business, training, junior roller derby, and nutrition. Outside the United Statesmany roller derby leagues enjoy support from their national skate federations, such as Skate Australia the British Roller Sports Federation and Roller Sports Canada.
Init took the current "Big 5" format: Zaina Arafat asserts in Virginia Quarterly Review that roller derby defies heteronormativity and patriarchal standards.
In EgyptArafat says, there are expectations that a woman will not show visible scars, will have an unblemished body for her husband, and will refrain from activities that may damage her body. She says roller derby in Egypt is subversive, as it acts as an indirect political statement. Carly Giesler states that skaters enact sexualities that create or reclaim an identity, and their role parodies "hegemonic scripts of sexuality" through the use of costumes, derby names and personas.
Roller derby acts as a unique stage for female athletes, letting them rebut constraints society places on women Kin 01 02 03 window roller female athletes. Giesler argues that female sports objectifies them for the male gazebut roller derby turns this on its head by disregarding gender roles and norms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the skate brand of the same name, see Roller Derby brand.
History of roller derby. List of roller derby associations. Women's Sport portal Feminism portal Punk rock portal. The derby will open tomorrow and run until Saturday. Olympics Sports National Post". Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original on United Kingdom Roller Derby Association.
Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association. The Roller Derby Athlete. Canberra Roller Derby League. Retrieved 25 July Silicon Valley Roller Girls. Matching dimension required for KINLONG Tilt and Turn Window 6 .
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